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Vocabulary List 1-12

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Vocabulary Lesson 1

Spirited : a spirited action is one that shows great energy and courage

Contract : if something contracts, it pulls together or becomes smaller

Impulse : an impulse is a sudden desire to do something

Arresting : something that is arresting grabs your attention so much that you stop what you are doing

Composure : someone with a lot of composure appears calm and controls their feelings, even in difficult situations

Infer : if you infer that something is the case, you figure out that it is true based on what you already know

Perceptive : a perceptive person is good at noticing or realizing things that are not obvious

Refute : if you refute something, you prove that it is wrong or not true  

Bonus Words

Science: Scientific Method

Hypothesis : a prediction based off of research and background knowledge

Conclusion : wrap up, or restate the topic

Variable : the part of the experiment that changes to achieve different outcomes

Observation : using your senses to analyze the world around you or a specific project

Prediction : making an educated guess

Organize : to arrange materials in a logical manner

Math Lessons 1-10

Digit : any symbol used to write numbers

Sequence : a list of numbers arranged according to a certain rule

Addend : any one of the numbers added in an addition problem

Algorithm : any process for solving a mathematical problem

Sum : the answer to an addition problem

Difference : the answer to a subtraction problem

Vocabulary Lesson 2

Undulate : if something undulates, it moves or is shaped in gentle waves, like the movement of water

Modest : someone who is modest doesn’t brag about things they can do or things they have done

Immune : if you to something, you are not affected by it

Stately : something or someone that is stately is impressive and grand in size or the way they act

Encumbered : if you are encumbered by something, it limits your movement or keeps you from doing what you want

Placid : a placid person or animal is calm and doesn’t get easily excited, angry, or upset

Whimsical : someone or something that is whimsical is playful and surprising

Endearing : if you call something a person does endearing, you mean it makes you feel fond of them

Bonus Words

Science: Biomes

Biome : a biome is a large-scale ecosystem and plants and animals adapt to live there

Deciduous : a deciduous forest is one in which the broad-leaved trees shed their leaves each year

Taiga : a taiga forest is one that has a forest of needle-leaved evergreens including: pine, hemlock, spruce, and fir

Tundra : Tundra is a rolling plain with low temperatures and long winters that prevent trees from growing

Ecosystem : an ecosystem is a community and its physical environment together

Grassland : an area in which tall grasses stretch towards the horizon

Desert : a desert is an area in which the sun shines often, it rains very little, and the soil and air are very dry

Climate : the climate is the average of all weather conditions through all seasons over a period of time

Social Studies: Parts of a Map  

Longitude : location on earth going north and south

Latitude : location on earth going east and west

Equator : an imaginary line that splits the earth into north and south hemispheres

Prime Meridian an imaginary line that splits the earth into east and west hemispheres (this line is the beginning and ending of time)

Vocabulary Lesson 3

Sufficient : if you have a sufficient amount, you have as much of it as you need

Wrath : if you are experiencing someone’s wrath, they are very mad at you

Hilarious : something hilarious is very funny

Likeness : if two things or people have a likeness to one another, they look a lot alike

Dabble : if you dabble in something, you enjoy doing it from time to time, but you are not an expert

Ordeal : an ordeal is something bad that happens that is hard to go through such as: a death in the family, you lost an arm or leg, or you have an accident and become paralyzed

Bonus Words

Math Lessons 11-20

Integers : the set of counting numbers, their opposites, and zero

Multiples : the product of a counting number and another number

Product : the answer to a multiplication problem

Factors : any one of the numbers multiplied in a multiplication problem

Divisible : able to be divided by a whole number without a remainder

Dividend : number that is divided

Divisor : a number by which another number is divided

Quotient : the answer to a division problem

Oblique : slanted or sloping, not horizontal or vertical

Vertical : upright, perpendicular to horizontal

Horizontal : side to side, perpendicular to vertical

Vocabulary Lesson 4

Capable : you are capable of doing something if you are able to do it

Emanate : if a sound or feeling emanates from somewhere, it comes from there

Distinguish : if you can distinguish one thing from another, you can tell the difference between them

Tendency : if someone has the tendency to do something, it means they are likely to do it

Detect : if you detect something, you notice it or sense it, even if it is not very obvious

Mundane : something that is mundane is very ordinary, not at all unusual or interesting

Revelation : a revelation is a surprising or interesting fact that is made known to people

Elicit : if you elicit a response from a person or animal, you cause it by doing or saying something

Bonus Words

Math Lessons 21-30

Degree : a unit for measuring temperature

Decade : a period of ten years

Century : a period of 100 years

Millennium : a period of one thousand years

Percent : a fraction whose denominator of 100 is expressed as a percent sign (%)

Denominator : the bottom number of a fraction, the number that tells how many parts are in a whole

Numerator : the top number of a fraction, the number that tells how many parts of the whole are counted

Fraction : a number that names part of a whole

Prime Number : a counting number greater than 1 whose only two factors are the number 1 and itself

Composite Number : a counting number greater than 1 that is divisible by a number other than 1 and itself

Social Studies: Meso-American  

City-state : a city that is an independent political state with its own ruling government

Hieroglyph : a picture or symbol representing an idea, an object, a syllable, or a sound

Equinox : one of the two days in a year when there is an equal amount of daytime and nighttime

Vocabulary Lesson 5

Hoist : if you hoist something heavy, you pull it or lift it up

Jubilee : a jubilee is a celebration to mark a special anniversary of an event

Unremitting : if something is unremitting, it goes on and on without stopping

Scruples : someone’s scruples are their ideas about what is fair, honest, and right

Nudge : if you nudge someone or something, you give them a gentle push, usually with an elbow

Tranquil : if something or someone is tranquil, they are calm and peaceful

Rejuvenate : if something rejuvenates you, it makes you feel young or fresh again

Eccentric : an eccentric person does or says things that other people think are strange

Bonus Words

Math Lessons 31-35

Obtuse Angle : an angle whose measure is more than 80 degrees and less than 180 degrees, larger than a right angle and an acute angle

Acute Angle : an angle whose measure is more than 0 degrees and less than 90 degrees, smaller than a right angle and an obtuse angle

Right Angle : an angle that forms a square corner and measures 90 degrees

Line : a straight collection of points extending in opposite directions without end

Line Segment : a part of a line with two distinct endpoints

Perpendicular Lines : two lines that intersect at right angles

Point : an exact position

Ray : a part of a line that begins at a point and continues without end in one direction

Congruent : having the same size and shape

Polygon : a closed, flat shape with straight lines

Hexagon : a six-sided polygon

Octagon : a polygon with eight sides

Triangle : a polygon with three sides and three angles

Pentagon : a polygon with five sides

Vertex : (plural: vertices) a point of an angle, polygon, or solid where two or more lines, rays, or line segments meet

Side : a line segment that is part of a polygon

Quadrilateral : any four-sided polygon

Vocabulary Lesson 6

Acclaim : if you earn acclaim, you are getting public praise for something you have done

Curt : if you say something in a curt manner, you say it in a short, somewhat rude way

Imply : if you imply something, you don’t say it directly, but you let others think that is what you mean

Hamper : if someone or something hampers you, they make it difficult for you to do what you are trying to do

Enthralled : if you are enthralled by something, it completely holds your attention because it is so interesting or exciting

Bonus Words

Science: Atoms and Compounds

Atom : an atom is the tiny particles that make up all matter

Nucleus : the nucleus is the very tiny center of an atom

Neutron : a neutron is a subatomic particle with no charge

Subatomic : the tiny particles that make up an atom

Proton : a proton is a subatomic particle with a positive charge

Electron : a subatomic particle with a negative charge

Molecule : when atoms are linked to only atoms of the same kind and are in pure form

Chemical Symbol : a symbol or set of letters for each element

Periodic Table : a table that lists all the elements according to their atomic number

Math Lessons 36-40  

Acute Triangle : a triangle whose largest angle measures less than 90 degrees

Equilateral Triangle : a triangle in which all sides are the same length and all angles are the same measure

Obtuse Triangle : a triangle whose largest angle measures more than 90 degrees and less than 180 degrees

Scalene Triangle : a triangle with three sides of different lengths

Right Triangle : a triangle whose largest angle measures 90 degrees

Isosceles Triangle : a triangle with at least two sides of equal length and two angles of equal measure

Vocabulary Lesson 7

Melancholy : if you feel or look melancholy, you feel or look very sad

Insignificant : if something is insignificant, it is unimportant, usually, because it is very small

Absorbed : if you are absorbed in something, you are so interested in it that it takes all of your attention

Dilapidated : something that is dilapidated is old and in bad condition

Manipulate : if you manipulate someone, you use skill to unfairly force or convince him or her to do what you want

Pompous : a pompous person acts or speaks in a way that shows they think they’re more important than they really are

Precocious : a precocious child is very smart, mature, or good at something in a way you would only expect an adult to be

Scheme : a scheme is someone’s plan for achieving a goal

Bonus Words

Math Lessons 41-50

Estimate : to find an approximate value

Common Denominator : denominators that are the same

Mixed Numbers : a number expressed as a whole number plus a fraction

Whole Numbers : all the counting numbers and zero

Divisible : able to be divided by a whole number without a remainder

Centimeter : one hundredth of a meter

Millimeter : one thousandth of a meter

Expanded notation : a way of writing a number as the sum of the products of the digits and the place values of the digits (234 = 200 + 30 + 4)

Average : the number found when the sum of two or more numbers is divided by the number of addends in the sum, also called the mean

Vocabulary Lesson 8

Ease : if you do something with ease, it’s not hard for you to do it

Propose : if you propose a plan or idea, you suggest it

Portable : if something is portable, it is easy to move or carry

Undertaking : if you undertake a large or difficult task, you say that you will do it

Penetrate : something that penetrates something else goes into it or passes through it

Durable : if something is durable, it is strong and lasts a long time

Indebted : if you feel indebted to someone, you are so grateful for something they did that you feel you owe them something in return

Ingenious : something that is ingenious is very clever and original

Bonus Words

Science: Physical and Chemical Change

Nonmetal : nonmetals make up about one-fourth of all elements

Compound : a compound is a substance made of atoms of two or more elements

Metal : when elements are solid at room temperature

Solid : something that has definite shape and volume

Liquid : something that has a definite volume but no definite shape

Gas : something that does not have a definite shape or volume

Matter : anything that has mass and takes up space

Social Studies: European Exploration  

Infidel : someone who does not believe in what is considered the true religion

Monopoly : complete control of selling a product or service

Scurvy : a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C, which is found in fresh fruits and vegetables

Circumnavigate : to travel completely around something, especially by water

Charter : a document issued by an authority giving a group certain rights

Vocabulary Lesson 9  

Nuzzle : if a person or animal nuzzles you, they gently rub you with their face to show they like you

Trepidation : a feeling of fear about something you are going to do or experience

Refuge : a place you can go to be safe from something

Grapple : if you grapple with something or someone, you struggle to hold onto or control them

Ridicule : to ridicule someone or something means to make fun of them

Tempest : a tempest is a very wild and dangerous storm

Countermand : if you countermand an instruction, you cancel it, usually be giving a new instruction

Luminous : something that is luminous is bright and seems to shine or give off light

Bonus Words

Science: Classification

Classification : all living things, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, other (King Phillip came over for good soup)

Vertebrates : animals with backbones such as: mammals, reptiles, fish, amphibians, and birds

Vascular plant : plants that have tubes called xylem and phloem

Invertebrates : animals that have no backbone (97% of all animals)

Nonvascular plants : plants that have no tubes, grow very small, and get their food from osmosis

Math Lessons 51-60  

Circumference : the distance around a circle, the perimeter of a circle

Diameter : the distance across a circle through its center

Perimeter : the distance around a closed, flat shape

Radius : the distance from the center of a circle to a point on the circle

Probability : a way of describing the likelihood of an event, the ratio of the favorable outcomes

Vocabulary Lesson 10

Weep : if you weep, you cry about a great sadness

Beseech : if you beseech someone, you beg him or her in an anxious way

Convenient : something that is convenient is handy because it is easy to use or works well in a particular situation

Sympathize : if you sympathize with someone, you show that you understand his or her feelings about something

Hoax : a hoax occurs when someone creates a pretend situation and tries to make people believe it is real

Respite : if you get a respite from something you don’t like, you get a short break from it

Just : if something is just, it is fair and right

Prodigious : something that is prodigious is very large and impressive

Vocabulary Lesson 11

Gritty : something that is gritty has very small pieces of stone in or on it, or feels like it does

Ailment : when you have an ailment, you are sick, but not too seriously

Spur : is something spurs you on, it encourages you to start doing something or to do something faster

Vie : if you and other people vie for something, you compete with each other to get it

Jostle : if something or someone jostles you, they bump or push you in an annoying way

Traverse : if you traverse something, you travel over or across it

Mediocre : something that is mediocre is just okay, it is not the worst, but it’s not the best either

Precarious : a thing or situation that is precarious is shaky and unsure; it might break down or change at any time

Bonus Words

Science: Simple Machines  

Force : the action that causes an object to move, stop, or change speed or direction

Friction : a force that opposes or acts against motion

Social Studies: Renaissance  

Rhetoric : the art of using words effectively in speaking or writing

Patron : a wealthy person who supports an artist

Mason : a person who builds or works with brick or stone

Apothecary : a druggist or pharmacist

Perspective : a technique that allows artists to show objects as they appear at various distances from the viewer, with distant objects shown smaller and nearby objects larger

Republic : a system of government in which voters elect officials to run the government

Fresco : a painting made on fresh, moist plaster with color pigments dissolved in water

Basilica : a Christian church building, often in the shape of a cross

Apprentice : in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, someone who agreed to live with and work for another for a specified period, in return for instruction in a trade or craft

Prior : the person, or officer, in charge of a priory or monastery

Diplomat : one who represents a government in its relationships with other governments

Infallible : incapable of error; certain

Math Lessons 61-70  

Endpoint : the point at which a line segment ends

Decimeter : one tenth of a meter

Meter : the basic unit of length in the metric system

Vocabulary Lesson 12

Notion : a notion is an idea or belief about something

Flair : if you have flair, you do things in an interesting and stylish way

Exclusive : an exclusive place, like a club or a store, is one where only certain people are allowed to go

Swanky : if you describe a place as swanky, you mean that it is expensive and stylish

Improvise : if you improvise, you do something without a plan and use whatever you have

Forte : something that is your forte is something you are very good at

Melodious : a melodious sound is one that is nice to listen to

Lucrative : something that is lucrative makes you a lot of money

Bonus Words

Science: Simple Machines  

Wedge : a wedge takes a downward force and changes it into an outward force

Inclined plane : an inclined plane reduces the force necessary to move an object

Pulley : a pulley changes the direction of force

Lever : a lever increases the force but decreases the distance in an object can move

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